financial ratios list

If you need a basic financial accounting principles pdf then download our free eBook now. This Key Financial Ratios Checklist details the key financial ratios you can use to help you interpret financial information. A large proportion of borrowed capital is risky as interest and capital repayments are legal obligations and must be met if the company real estate bookkeeping is to avoid insolvency. The payment of an annual equity dividend on the other hand is not a legal obligation. Despite its risks, borrowed capital is attractive to companies as lenders accept a lower rate of return than equity investors due to their secured positions. Also interest payments, unlike equity dividends, are tax deductible.

financial ratios list

Liquidity analysis focuses on a company’s ability to pay its short-term obligations. It depends on the structure of the company’s liabilities, its funding sources, and contingent liabilities. This ratio is used widely within businesses to measure the effectiveness of a debt collection routine. It sets out the relationship between debtors and the sales that have been made on credit, and also shows how quickly customers are paying their invoices. In order to calculate the ratios, first, we need to source data from a company’s financial statements. Solvency is the ability of a company to pay off its debts and other financial obligations.

What Is a Financial Ratio?

The current ratio expresses current assets as a proportion of current liabilities. A ratio greater than 1 means that current assets are more than current liabilities. A low ratio may indicate that the company is relying on cash flows from operations to pay off current liabilities.

financial ratios list

Thisshows the weakness of dividend yield as a measure – the shareholdersare also benefiting from the increased share price but dividend yielddoes not take account of it. Dividend yield is, however, incomplete in that it ignores thecapital gain on the share which most shareholders would expect. There is a tendency amongst investors to regard the level ofdividend payout as a form of information about the company’sperformance. As aresult many companies try to maintain a stable and slowly rising DPS, byresisting making high payouts during particularly good years.

Current liabilities

A cash flow statement gives us an overview of how much money is coming in and out of the business over a certain period. Financial ratios show the profitability, solvency, and efficiency of a business. If payables are £30,000 and cost of sales is £200,000, then the creditor payment period is 54.8 days. If operating profit is £550,000 and the capital employed by the firm is £500,000, then ROCE is 110%.

  • Collection period ratio measures how often, on average, you collect your accounts receivable.
  • Capital employed can be calculated as (non-current liabilities + total equity) or (total assets – current liabilities).
  • This assesses whether you have sufficient assets to cover your liabilities.
  • These show how well a company can deal with its long term financial obligations.
  • Furthermore, the analysis helps to measure a company’s financial performance against the wider sector, giving business owners an understanding of how they compare to their top competitors.
  • Benchmarking is conducted by comparing the performance of the business to other best practice firms.

They typically contain an income statement item in the numerator and a balance sheet item from the denominator. Since efficiency impacts liquidity, these ratios are also useful in liquidity analysis. They can be used to provide KPIs and help guide strategic decisions to meet business goals.

important financial ratios

You could also use the net profit ratio to evaluate your profitability. Divide the net profit before tax by the total value of net sales to see how good your net profit is. Stock turnover – average cost of sales divided by the average value of stock. We are an invoice financing company who offer a solution whereby payments are collected on your behalf managed by our team of expert credit controllers so you can focus on running your business.

They enable a business to benchmark its performance and target areas for improvement. They help companies see problematic areas and put measures in place to prevent or ease potential issues. Whether you’re investing your own money or interested in keeping shareholders happy, you’ll need to know the return on equity ratio. This is one of the most important financial ratios for calculating profit, looking at a company’s net earnings minus dividends and dividing this figure by shareholders equity. A cash flow ratio is a measure of the number of times a company can pay off current debts with cash generated within the same period.

An overview of key financial ratio analysis

Before investing in a company you should check that it is profitable enough to pay you any dividends at all. If the dividend is covered twice, the company would be paying out half its earnings as an ordinary dividend. This ratio will show the number of times that an ordinary dividend could be paid out of current earnings. If your debtors are slow at paying the business could fall into cashflow problems. The most important step in analysis of a ratio is identification of a relevant benchmark, a peer group of the company’s historical track record. The aim is to understand the underlying drivers of performance.

financial ratios list